Indonesia aims at producing so called "green diesel" from palm oil in 2022, targeting an output of 3,700 million litres. The production could rise to 6,100 million litres in 2024. If biodiesel is produced with fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from palm oil, "green diesel" is prepared by refining fossil crude oil and palm derivatives together. Indonesia state-owned oil and gas corporation Pertamina intends to build refineries which can produce "green diesel".
According to the US Energy Information Administration (EIA), the US coal-fired power capacity fell by around 60 GW between 2011 and 2017 as a result of power plant retirements, which were due to high operating and maintenance costs. Sustained relatively low gas prices have made coal-fired power plants less competitive and less used, reducing revenues and operating margins for their operators, prompting them to retire these coal-fired units. A study led by the EIA highlights that coal-fired power plants with the lowest variable operating and maintenance costs have higher capacity factors (59% in 2017) than the coal fleet average (54%) and than the highest cost group (47%).
Equatorial Guinea has announced plans to develop energy projects worth US$1bn, including two new oil refineries. The first modular refinery would have a capacity of 20,000 bbl/d and transforms crude oil from Zafiro and Aseng fields. The second modular refinery would produce 10,000-20,000 bbl/d and would be located on the mainland in Kogo, with oil supplied by the Ceiba and Okume Complex.
According to the Indonesian government, the introduction of the mandatory use of 30% blended biodiesel (B30) from January 2020 will allow the country to reduce its fossil diesel fuel consumption by 165,000 bbl/d. The archipelago will begin research on fuel containing 50% of bio component, known as B50 in January 2020.